Essays on stereotyping and prejudice


Examples of Discrimination

And yet, despite our best intentions, we may end up making friends only with people who are similar to us and perhaps even avoiding people whom we see as different.

In this chapter, we will study the processes by which we develop, maintain, and make use of our stereotypes and our prejudices. We will consider the negative outcomes of those beliefs on the targets of our perceptions, and we will consider ways that we might be able to change those beliefs, or at least help us stop acting upon them.

Correll, J. The influence of stereotypes on decisions to shoot. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37 6 , — Across the thin blue line: Police officers and racial bias in the decision to shoot. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92 6 , — Cunningham, G. The LGBT advantage: Examining the relationship among sexual orientation diversity, diversity strategy, and performance. Sport Management Review, 14 4 , Fiske, S.

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Stereotypes and prejudice create workplace discrimination. Brief Ed. Jackson, L. The psychology of prejudice: From attitudes to social action. Mannix, E. What differences make a difference? The promise and reality of diverse teams in organizations.

Stereotype, Prejudice and Discrimination

Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 6 2 , 31— Price, J. Racial discrimination among NBA referees.


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Shapiro, J. From stereotype threat to stereotype threats: Implications of a multi-threat framework for causes, moderators, mediators, consequences, and interventions. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11 2 , — Spencer, S. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35 , 4— Work group diversity. Annual Review of Psychology, 58 1 , — Wood, W. Fiske, D.

Stereotypes and Salience

Lindzey Eds. Zhang, S. Barreto, M. Schmitt Eds. Consequently, observing the stereotypes will lead to other social phenomena that impact either society or separate individual. A stereotype is an oversimplified list of beliefs as for members of social stratums or groups they belong to. The stereotype characterization is based on the salience principle. This principle states around some events that are obvious or appear initially prominent.

So, people are salient about them. For instance, a skin color is the obvious and salient characteristic. The skin color is the first thing that people notice. Therefore, the skin becomes the bases for stereotyping. In the USA a choice of salient characteristics is determined culturally. The nose, lips size and shape, hair texture, body structure or skin color are salient characteristics. Stereotypes that are based on ethnicity or race are called racial — ethnic stereotypes. The stereotyping of Chinese as ignorant, dirty and untrustworthy in the USA is a bright example of this statement.

Americans tend to think that Jews are materialistic and unethical; Italians are prone to crime, they are overly argumentative and emotionally etc. Racial — ethnic stereotypes lead to racism. Nonetheless, when we see Italian or Jew we attribute general features of the group to the definite person. Stereotypes, bias, prejudice and discrimination have illusory correlation with reality.

Very often popular meaning of a group of people turns to be a false one. The racism is divided into few types. There are historical, scientific, institutional and new racism. The historical racism identifies the population with the common origin in history. Adherents of this racial approach do not define the nation with a fixed biological character.

Stereotype and Prejudice Essay Sample free essay sample - New York Essays

They define commonly European nation, they have symbols Nazi Eagle , and believe in superiority of the one nation. Scientific racism insists that all people might be characterized by certain physical traits. Followers of this approach support the hierarchy of one race.

It means that one race should civilize and another justify for providing colonialism. Institutional racism intends protection of some dominant groups. It maintains unequal position of subordinate groups. The supporters of institutional racism systematically discriminate particular groups of people by certain social structures. New expressions, such as integration, cultural values, and immigrants input racial contest in our culture. New racism is the notion to determine cultural or other inferiorities Hick, Prejudice is the attitude towards the person being discriminated.

Prejudice means commonly what you think about an adherent of some social group. Discrimination is negative and irregular attitude of people to a member of some particular social group or stratum because of the very fact of their membership in a definite group or stratum. People tend to think that discrimination is an action and means what you do relatively to a deprived person.

There are two minor types of discrimination. They are housing and income discrimination.

The main difference between income discrimination and housing discrimination is their subordinating to law. Why prejudice, racism and discrimination basically exist? Two categories of theories exist to explain the cause of their appearance in the society. The first category relates to Sociological Theories of the types of racism; it takes into account discrimination and institutional racism. The second category relates to Psychological Theories about prejudice. This way, theories of prejudice consist of two types, as well. They are Authoritarian and Scapegoat theories.

The Scapegoat Theory describes the members of historically dominative group with their desire to get social and economic superiority over various minority groups. Such frustration brings aggression and anger in result. The members of minority groups become scapegoats and sustain the discrimination. For instance, White person was denied a job because of many Mexican Americans were permitted into the country, this person would become hostile and treat them as scapegoat. The central idea in Scapegoat Theory is the psychological principle that tells us about frustration which is often followed by aggression.

The Authoritarian Theory argues that authoritarian personalities are more likely to be prejudiced against minority groups than individuals who do not have authoritarian personality. This theory researches individuals that are described by a tendency to share other people into categories. They also have an inclination to submit an authority, be very intolerant to ambiguity, rigidly conform and be inclined of superstition.


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  • The people belonging to this category have a tendency more often stereotype and rigidly characterize the members of minority groups. Virtually, the Authorization Theory directly relates with high religious orthodoxy and extreme political conservatism.

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