One of the strengths of the present review is that it has found evidence of an association between marketing exposure and youth drinking behaviour in multiple population groups, cultures and nationalities among a range of younger age groups, and using an array of different measurement methods. To the 13 longitudinal cohorts reviewed by Anderson et al.
All support the original review's findings of a significant association between exposure to marketing and increased consumption of alcohol or worsening of drinking patterns. Gaps in the literature remain to be filled. Content of marketing has been largely ignored, and there is reason to believe that content such as associating drinking alcohol with parties, humour, sexual attractiveness and other rewarding outcomes may be more attractive to youth If such content areas could be documented and quantified more fully, they may add to the predictive power of simple exposure measures.
This is an important area for future research. The finding of several studies that levels of exposure appear to be as high or nearly as high among younger adolescents as they are among older adolescents and young adults represents a significant failure of current marketing codes to protect minors from marketing messages 21 , This is particularly important with digital marketing techniques that encourage interactive engagement with brand marketing and are difficult for parents to monitor and control. This review has found further evidence of a close association between marketing and youth alcohol consumption.
Recent longitudinal studies show additional evidence of a relationship between early marketing exposure and later alcohol consumption, and the results support the conclusions of the earlier reviews. Many of the studies found their effects after adjusting for differences in family and peer drinking behaviour and other cultural incentives to consume alcohol. The authors are grateful to Public Health England for commissioning an earlier review of the subject of this paper in Parts of that review have been updated and included in the present paper.
Preliminary versions of the majority of these manuscripts were first presented at a meeting organized by the Pan American Health Organization. Volume , Issue S1. The full text of this article hosted at iucr.
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David Jernigan Corresponding Author E-mail address: djernigan jhu. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access.
Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Abstract Background and Aims Youth alcohol consumption is a major global public health concern. Conclusions Young people who have greater exposure to alcohol marketing appear to be more likely subsequently to initiate alcohol use and engage in binge and hazardous drinking. Figure 1 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Media exposure included questions on advertising on TV, print media and outdoor media, plus questions on the use of alcohol in TV shows and movies, and in internet social media discussions.
Of the drinkers in the 10th grade, When other potential confounders were accounted for, greater media exposure to alcohol advertising in the 10th grade was associated significantly with the initiation of alcohol use, and when combined with an increase in media exposure from 10th to 11th grades, this was significantly associated with the persistence of alcohol use Exposure to alcohol advertising in the media was associated with both the initiation and the persistence of alcohol use by youth De Bruijn et al.
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This effect was found to be consistent in all four countries The association between marketing exposure and adolescents' alcohol expectancies and drinking was robust and seems consistent in several national contexts De Bruijn et al. Alcohol marketing in these events was calculated from known sponsorship ties.
The association between this exposure and adolescents' alcohol expectancies and drinking was robust, even when controlling for national differences and demographics Exposure to sports sponsorship can predict future drinking. Policymakers are recommended to take action on alcohol marketing via sports events Gordon et al. Results: at wave 1, the more channels through which adolescents had seen alcohol marketing, the higher their level of consumer socialization.
At wave 2, hazardous drinking at age 15 was predicted by two measures of consumer socialization at unaided brand recognition and brand saliency Marketing acts as a significant influencing agent in the consumer socialization of adolescents to alcohol. The current policy and regulatory environment is not protecting children adequately McClure et al. Outcome measures were ever drinking and ever binge drinking six or more drinks on one occasion. Alcohol use initiation was related positively to baseline alcohol advertisement exposure.
The analysis revealed similar results for binge drinking initiation More favourable attitudes about alcohol may be one path through which alcohol advertising exerts behavioural influence. The study supports policy measures to reduce exposure e. Study examined data from waves 2 and 3, using as proxy for exposure extrapolation from favourite TV station and amount of time spent viewing television to develop, using Nielsen ratings data, a measure of the adstock current and prior exposure to alcohol advertising, discounted retrospectively, for the past year of each participant.
Relationships between exposure and both expectancies and initiation were curvilinear and significant for the sample overall, and for boys but not girls Relatively small amounts of alcohol advertising are associated with increased alcohol expectancies and with drinking initiation among early adolescent boys Saffer et al.
Advertising exposure and price effects were examined, with exposure derived from place of residence and the hours of alcohol advertisments per month on local and national TV shown in that media market as reported by commercial sources.
Continued high levels of alcohol advertising on TV are not in the interests of public health Tanski et al. Alcohol consumption measures were a the onset of drinking among those who never drank; b the onset of binge drinking among those who were never binge drinkers; and c the onset of hazardous drinking among those with an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test consumption subscore of less than 4. Results: underage participants were only slightly less likely than participants of legal drinking age to have seen alcohol advertisements the mean percentages of advertisements seen were Figure 2 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint.
Study Study quality score Chang et al. Discussion This review has identified 12 longitudinal studies published since containing original data from nine cohorts not reported on previously regarding children and young people's exposure to alcohol marketing and their consumption of alcohol. Mediating factors Effective intervention requires understanding how alcohol marketing influences young people. Strengths and limitations The strengths of the studies included in this review include the diversity of national and cultural settings in which they have been conducted, as well as the diversity of measures of marketing exposure and mediators they have employed.
Conclusions This review has found further evidence of a close association between marketing and youth alcohol consumption. Declaration of interests None. Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to Public Health England for commissioning an earlier review of the subject of this paper in Lancet ; : Google Scholar.
PubMed Google Scholar. Research Papers words 7 pages. They typically party with friends at fraternity parties, bars, and clubs; and unfortunately most of these students are underage, consuming excessive amounts of alcohol or 'Binge Drinking'. Binge drinking results in several detrimental outcomes, some are even fatal.
Today this type of drinking is rampant on educational campuses everywhere. Large and small, urban and rural educational institutions are not left unaffected by this growing trend to binge drink Research Papers words 6.
The issue of binge drinking has been a problem on college campuses for decades. Binge drinking has many horrible effects, but the problem starts with the causes for it. If the causes could be controlled then the issue would not get out of hand. Many college students give different causes for their drinking problems, and experts on the subject have their explanations as well College students worldwide know this feeling. These are the results of binge drinking.
Why do they do it. Binge drinking is defined for men as drinking five or more drinks in a row in the past two weeks, and for women as drinking four r more drinks in a row ICAP 1. This has become a great pastime for college students nationwide and a major concern on many campuses Free Essays words 1. Binge Drinking.
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Essays on Alcohol
The Motives Behind Binge Drinking Essay - Introduction: One of the most widely used depressants, or drug as some may consider it, is alcohol. But not all binge drinkers are young adults who have yet to get their first full-time job—in fact, a growing number of them are senior citizens, according to a new study published Wednesday July 31 in the journal Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. They analyzed data from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health, which asks thousands of respondents questions about their alcohol and drug use annually.
Specifically, they homed in on alcohol use among adults 65 or older, and defined binge drinking as having four drinks in one sitting if respondents were women, and five drinks if respondents were men.
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