Research paper source format


9.2 Documenting Source Material

When deciding to use any quotation as opposed to paraphrasing, you need to make sure the quote is a statement that the original author has worded so beautifully it would be less effective if you changed it into your own words. When you find something you would like to include verbatim word for word from a source, you need to decide if you should include the whole paragraph or section, or a smaller part. Sometimes, you may choose to use a longer quote but remove any unnecessary words. You would then use ellipses to show what content you have removed. The following examples show how this is done.

A short quote can be as one word or a phrase or a complete sentence as long as three lines of text again, removing any unnecessary words. Generally, a short quotation is one that is fewer than 40 words. Whether you use a complete sentence or only part of one, you need to make sure it blends in perfectly with your own sentence or paragraph. For example, if your paragraph is written in the present tense but the quote is in the past, you will need to change the verb, so it will fit into your writing.

You will read about on this shortly. Using an attributive tag is another way to help incorporate your quote more fluidly. An attributive tag is a phrase that shows your reader you got the information from a source, and you are giving the author attribution or credit for his or her ideas or words. Using an attributive tag allows you to provide a citation at the same time as helping integrate the quote more smoothly into your work. In the example above, the attributive tag with citation is underlined; this statement is giving Marshall credit for his own words and ideas.

If you were to include only a portion of that sentence, perhaps excerpting from the middle of it, you would not start the quote with a capital. In this example, notice how the student has only used a portion of the sentence, so did not need to include the capital. For short quotations, use quotation marks to indicate where the quoted material begins and ends, and cite the name of the author s , the year of publication, and the page number where the quotation appears in your source. Remember to include commas to separate elements within the parenthetical citation.

Text Formatting

Also, avoid redundancy. If you name the author s in your sentence, do not repeat the name s in your parenthetical citation. Review following the examples of different ways to cite direct quotations.

How to Cite Sources- Research Paper

The elements within parentheses are separated by commas. Include the page number in the parenthetical citation. Although APA style guidelines do not require writers to provide page numbers for material that is not directly quoted, your instructor may wish you to do so when possible. Check with your instructor about his or her preferences. Long quotations should be used even more sparingly than shorter ones.


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Long quotations can range in length from four to seven or eight lines 40 words or more, and should never be as long as a page. If you believe you have found the perfect paragraph to support your ideas, and you decide you really want or need to use the long quote, see if you can shorten it by removing unnecessary words or complete sentences and put ellipses in their place. This will again show your reader that you have put a lot of thought into the use of the quote and that you have included it just because you did not want to do any thinking.


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Be wary of quoting from sources at length. Remember, your ideas should drive the paper, and quotations should be used to support and enhance your points. Make sure any lengthy quotations that you include serve a clear purpose. Generally, no more than 10 to 15 percent of a paper should consist of quoted material. As with short quotations, you need to make sure long quotations fit into your writing.

To introduce a long quote, you need to include a stem this can include an attributive tag followed by a colon :. The stem is underlined in the example below. Much of the population—especially younger males—frequently engaged in violence by participating in saloon fights and shootouts and gun fights. In example, you can see the stem clearly introduces the quote in a grammatically correct way, leading into the quote fluidly. When you quote a longer passage from a source—40 words or more—you need to use a different format to set off the quoted material.

If the passage continues into a second paragraph, indent a full tab five spaces again in the first line of the second paragraph. Here is an example:. In recent years, many writers within the fitness industry have emphasized the ways in which women can benefit from weight-bearing exercise, such as weightlifting, karate, dancing, stair climbing, hiking, and jogging.

Additionally, these exercises help women maintain muscle mass and overall strength, and many common forms of weight bearing exercise, such as brisk walking or stair climbing, also provide noticeable cardiovascular benefits. It is important to note that swimming cannot be considered a weight-bearing exercise, since the water supports and cushions the swimmer.

Look at the long block quotation example above. Identify four differences between how it is formatt ed and how you would format a short quotation. You may want to single space the quote, but not the main part of your essay. This will allow the long block quotation to stand out even more. Do not use quotation marks; they are unnecessary because the spacing and indenting and citation will tell your reader this is a quote.

Throughout the body of your paper, you must include a citation whenever you quote or paraphrase material from your research sources. The purpose of citations is twofold: to give credit to others for their ideas and to allow your reader to follow up and learn more about the topic if desired. Your in-text citations provide basic information about your source; you will provide more detailed information for each source you cite in text in the references section.

In-text citations must provide the name of the author or authors and the year the source was published. When a given source does not list an individual author, you may provide the source title or the name of the organization that published the material instead. When directly quoting a source, you must include the page number where the quote appears in the work being cited. This information may be included within the sentence or in a parenthetical reference at the end of the sentence, as in these examples.

Here, the writer chose to mention the source title in the sentence an optional piece of information to include and followed the title with a parenthetical citation. Another variation is to introduce the author and the source title in your sentence and include the publication date and page number in parentheses within the sentence or at the end of the sentence.

As long as you have included the essential information, you can use the option that works best for that particular sentence and source. Citing a book with a single author is usually straightforward. Of course, your research may require that you cite many other types of sources, such as books or articles with more than one author or sources with no individual author listed.

You may also need to cite sources available in both print and online and nonprint sources, such as websites and personal interviews. In each of the sentences below, identify the mistakes with how the quote was incorporated. Look carefully; some of them are tricky and have more than one error. Freedom of research is undoubtedly a cherished ideal in our society. In that respect, research has an interest in being free, independent, and unrestricted. Such interests weigh against regulations.

On the other hand, research should also be valid, verifiable, and unbiased, to attain the overarching goal of gaining obtaining generalisable knowledge Simonsen, , p. According to Emlet, the rate in which older adults have contracted HIV has grown exponentially. Emlet, The second one is redundant.

There is an extra period before the citation. With a short quote, you put the end punctuation after the citation. The following subsections discuss the correct format for various types of in-text citations. Read them through quickly to get a sense of what is covered, and then refer to them again as needed. Include a page reference whenever you quote a source directly. See also the guidelines presented earlier in this chapter about when to include a page reference for paraphrased material. At times, your research may include multiple works by the same author.

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If the works were published in different years, a standard in-text citation will serve to distinguish them. If you are citing multiple works by the same author published in the same year, include a lowercase letter immediately after the year. Rank the sources in the order they appear in your references section. Rodriguez a criticized the nutrition supplement industry for making unsubstantiated and sometimes misleading claims about the benefits of taking supplements.

Additionally, he warned that consumers frequently do not realize the potential harmful effects of some popular supplements Rodriguez, b. In this case, this is acceptable because this is referring to a different source written by the same person. Do so even if the publication years are different.

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EasyBib Guide to Citing and Writing in APA Format

Williams believes nutritional supplements can be a useful part of some diet and fitness regimens. Williams , however, believes these supplements are overrated. According to two leading researchers, the rate of childhood obesity exceeds the rate of adult obesity K. Connelley, ; O.

Connelley, Studies from both A. Wright and C. Wright confirm the benefits of diet and exercise on weight loss.

Student's Guide to Citation Styles for Research Papers

Et al. Note that these examples follow the same ampersand conventions as sources with two authors. As Henderson et al. Disturbingly, some young women use smoking as a means of appetite suppression Henderson et al. Researchers have found that outreach work with young people has helped reduce tobacco use in some communities Costello et al. Lengthy organization names with well-known abbreviations can be abbreviated.

research paper source format Research paper source format
research paper source format Research paper source format
research paper source format Research paper source format
research paper source format Research paper source format
research paper source format Research paper source format
research paper source format Research paper source format
research paper source format Research paper source format
research paper source format Research paper source format
Research paper source format

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